Obesity

Obesity can be defined as the collection of fat in the human body at a level that will negatively affect health. The excess weight that a person has interacts with a lot of variables, especially genetic factors, eating habits, environmental and psychosocial effects. Recently, it has been thought that the unobstructed rise in obesity levels is influenced by the current environmental conditions rather than by their genetic effects.

It is determined that there is increase in incidence of  various chronic diseases such as osteoartthritis, cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea in people with morbid obesity; therefore, decreased life expectancy and quality of life of individuals.

Types of Obesity

Recently, researches has been carried out on which areas of the body fat is collected, spread or localized, rather than the total amount of fat in the individual. Because the area and distribution of fat in the body is associated with the occurrence of chronic diseases and morbidity and mortality rates of diseases. Obesity is grouped in 2 ways according to the localization of fat in the body.

  • Gynoid Type Obesity

Gynoid type obesity is defined as obesity, which is observed by intense fat localization in the hip area of the person, also called pear-type, which is more common in women.

  • Android Type Obesity

The patient has an increase in adipose tissue, especially in the abdomen and waist area. Android obesity (abdominal, central obesity) carries with it many additional diseases. For example; diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia etc. Obesity is considered to have waist-hip ratio greater than 0.85 in adult females and 1.0 in males. This type of obesity is generally seen in male individuals.

What are the types of Bariatric Surgery?

Bariatric surgery, or stomach reduction surgery, can be summarized as a series of ‘closed’ interventions. In bariatric surgery, the same intervention methods are not applied to every patient, However, all obesity surgeries, are performed by laparoscopic, that is, closed surgery method.
Bariatric surgeries are performed by reaching into the abdomen through millimetric holes without a large abdominal incision. Patients can stand up on the same day and be discharged within a few days; They can return to their jobs within 1 week. Since there is no incision, the pain is felt to its minimum, and aesthetically pleasing results are obtained. The bariatric surgeries are classified as below:
• Volume Reduction Surgeries
• Laparoscopic Gastric Balloon
• Gastric Sleeve
1. Absorption Disruptive Surgeries
• Gastric Bypass
• Mini gastric bypass
Who cannot have bariatric surgeries?
• Those with psychiatric problems that will prevent from logical thinking
• Those with substance addiction
• Those who cannot make the necessary lifestyle changes in their eating habits after surgery
• Those who have a disease that will complicate the surgery as these require anesthesia

SURGICAL TREATMENT

It has been determined that 66% of the patients start to gain weight back again in 24 months when the non-surgical methods are applied. Consequently, obesity surgery treatment has started to be applied more commonly. The treatment of morbid obesity that leaves people with fatal risks and shortens human life is called bariatric surgery.

With bariatric surgery, there comes long-term and permanent weight loss while there is less effects of morbid obesity and a longer life span. It can be achievable to have a sustainable and an efficient weight loss through bariatric surgery. Turkey serves international patients who comes all over the world in the field of bariatric surgery professionally. There is a huge success on both pre-operation and post-operation services that are offered and the high quality of medical techniques in Turkey.

The cost of bariatric surgery in Turkey in 2020 is accepted on a plain level that gives satisfaction and gets world-wide attention.

WHO IS NOT SUITABLE FOR THE OBESITY SURGERY?

Obesity surgery that is mostly called as “Obesity Surgery” can be done under some conditions. While evaluating if a patient is suitable for the operation or not, their diseases related to the obesity and psychological situation are checked. So, these criterias are crucial:

First of all, the patient must be prepared psychologically for the obesity surgery. Excessive eating disorder, drug addiction, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder can make these kind of surgeries difficult.

The patients that are over 65 or that have got liver cirrhosis, diseases that leads to infection or bleeding or serious heart conditions are in the risk group therefore not suitable for the bariatric surgeries. The patients who have high progressed cancer or hypertension are also not suitable for the bariatric surgeries therefore they are not approved for the process.

The patients whose BMIs are not convenient cannot be approved for the bariatric surgeries as well.

TYPES OF THE OBESITY SURGERIES

Surgical treatments has been applied for morbid obesity since 1950s. Especially when obesity became an increasing problem in 1980s, vertical banded gastroplasty surgeries started to be applied commonly and attracted attention with its satisfying results.

Surgical treatment of morbid obesity has been accepted as a discipline and the rate of its succeed has been increased since 1990s.

In the studies that is being developed in obesity surgery shows that the patients who has been helped by these kind of surgical treatments has started to have a higher quality of life standarts, a higher capasity of using their physical functions.

All of the surgeries that is applied for patients to eat less by decreasing absorption through interventions on stomach and intestines are called obesity surgery.

Obesity surgery, metabolic surgery and bariatric surgery are the most efficient treatments in obesity according to the studies that are developed so far. The most common obesity surgeries are laparoscopic gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy.

Obesity surgery, bariatric surgery or metabolic surgery are called as if they are different types of surgeries time to time. These three terms mean the same and consist the same purpose. The surgery can be called as metabolic since it cures obesity that comes from high cholesterol, diabetes and hypertension; it can be called as metabolic since these three problems called metabolic syndrome and they are cured by the same surgery. “Baros” means heavy and “iatros” means doctor in Ancient Greek. The Word bariatric comes from the connection of these two words to express the treatment of the patients who has got excessive amount of weight.

Some information about how stomach works can help through understanding this surgery’s aim. A gastric sleeve works through removing a large portion of the stomach. Capacity of the stomach is vastly reduced and it starts to have a small portion of food. Feeling full after eating much less food and be less hungry between meals are the results of sleeve gastrectomy surgery.